Elections are a formal decision-making process in a party where people elect a person to hold public office. Elections have been the norm in which democratic democracy has operated since the 17th century.
Elections in India and the World:
There are various types of election systems in the world. We can divide this into two types:
1. Plural systems
2. Equal Representation Systems
Article 324 to 329 of the constitution provides the framework for the electoral system in India.
Lok Sabha (India) election process:
Lok Sabha members are elected by universal suffrage and a first-post program.
The power of the House contemplated by the Constitution is 552. This could include 530 members from the provinces, up to 20 members from the Union. The President may nominate two members from the English-Indian community. The Amendment Act 95, 2009 has extended the term of 10 years to 2020.
various aspects of the Lok Sabha elections:
Reorganization of areas after the census
Booking seats for SCs and STs
Lok Sabha members are elected by direct choice by the people. Every citizen of the country, over the age of 18, can vote in elections regardless of their social status, religion, nationality, ethnicity, etc.
Each province is divided into regions for election purposes. One member of the Lok Sabha is elected in each region. That means the number of election seats is equal to the number of seats.
Rezoning after each census:
After the census, there may be a need to reorganize the regions; as the limit is based on people and not location.
Booking for SCs and ST seats:
The Constitution provides for the reservation of seats for Scheduled Schedules (SCs) and Scheduled Schedules (STs) in Lok Sabha. The Amendment Act 95, 2009 has extended the booking period for another ten years until 2020.
Pursuant to the 87th Amendment Act, 2003, the number of seats to be allocated for Structured Castes (SCs) and Structured Grades (STs) in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha will be based on the 2001 census.
Rajya Sabha election process:
Rajya Sabha is the upper house of Parliament, which can accommodate more than 250 members. Rajya Sabha members are not directly elected by the people. They are elected by the members of the provincial legislatures according to a system of equal representation by a single vote being passed.
The 12 members of the Rajya Sabha have been appointed by the President, who has achieved prominence in the fields of literature, art, science, and social sciences.
Rajya Sabha is a permanent body. It does not disperse but one-third of its members retire after two years. Currently, Rajya Sabha has 245 members.
Eligibility for membership of Parliament:
Must be an Indian citizen.
He or she must register before a person authorized by the Electoral Commission to take the oath in accordance with the third provision of the constitution.
The chairperson of Rajya Sabha must not be less than thirty years old.
The chairperson of Lok Sabha must not be less than 25 years old.
Must have other qualifications prescribed by Parliament.
Section 102 of the Constitution defines the eligibility for election as a member of Parliament, and for being a member:
If he is in charge of any profit office under the Government of India or any other state.
If he or she is not an Indian citizen or voluntarily acquires foreign citizenship or acknowledges his or her loyalty or adherence to a foreign country.
If it is issued or under an Act of Parliament.
Parliament has determined the amount of additional non-compliance with the Citizenship Act, 1951, In addition, the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution provides for the disenfranchisement of members on the basis of rebellion.
Election Procedure for National Legislative Conventions
Direct Elections: A legislative meeting is made up of representatives of elected individuals on the basis of sufficient adult backgrounds. The maximum power is set to 500 and the minimum power is 60.
Nominated Member: The Governor may elect one member in the Anglo-Indian community if, in his opinion, the public is under-represented in the House.
Geographical Areas: Each country is divided into regions by region for election purposes. One member of the legislature is elected in each region.
Reorganization after each census: After each census, adjustments will be made to the total number of seats in each state legislature and the division of each state into regional constituencies.
Striking Council Election Procedure:
The total number of members of a state legislature with such a council may not exceed one-third of the total number of members of the national legislature. However, the powers of the legislature may not be less than forty. The real power of the council is fixed by parliament. The composition of the council that hits us in part is an indirect election in part by special constituencies and in part nominations.
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