The Nationalist Movements in India are organized as mass organizations that emphasize and raise questions about the interests of the Indian people. In many of these movements, people themselves are encouraged to take action. Due to some factors, these organizations have failed to secure India’s independence. However, they promote nationalism. The failure of these organizations has affected many people as they withdraw from government offices, schools, factories, and services. Although they were able to obtain a few permits such as the one won by Salt March in 1930, they did not help India much in terms of their goal.
The influx of Europeans into the country began with the establishment of the spice trade in the 1400s when many European countries established trading centers and colonial cities in the country. Portugal, the Dutch Republic, Denmark, France, and England all had a prominent presence in the country from as far back as the 1400s (Portugal). It was England, however, that held the longest empire in the country. After 1858, the British seized colonial power after taking over from the East India Company which had ruled since 1757.
Mahatma Gandhi and His Non-Violent Ways:
Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most famous figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading a non-violent uprising. He first used a non-violent method in South Africa where he worked as a lawyer living abroad. He was hurt and angry when he saw the racism and exploitation of people of color under white rule. He is organizing a non-violent protest in the country that earned him the respect and support of the people of South Africa. In 1921, he became the leader of the Indian National Congress, a nationalist Indian nationalist movement that sought non-discriminatory laws, equal rights for men and women, peaceful religious relations, the overthrow of the sect, and, above all, Indian independence. During his lifetime, Gandhi formed the three major national organizations discussed below.
The first movement led by Gandhi was the Non-Cooperation Movement which lasted from September 1920 to February 1922. If the inhabitants of the country ceased to cooperate with the British, then a few Britishers would be forced to stop. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from school, and avoided government offices.
The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular. However, the Non-Cooperation Movement ended when a violent mob erupted in Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh. The victims set fire to a police station, killing 23 police officers. Gandhi founded the organization, and he remained faithful to his position of non-violent protest. The sudden demise of the Non-Aligned Movement did not stop there.
On March 12, 1930, protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to deny taxes and to protest against British control over salt. Gandhi started the 24-day march, 240 miles with 79 followers, and ended in the thousands. When the protesters arrived in the coastal town of Dandi, they produced saltwater in brackish water without paying British taxes. For about a year, the organization caused public disobedience, illegal production and purchase of salt, boycotts of Britain, tax evasion, and the imprisonment of some 80,000 Indians. The organization received national or international attention.
Leaving the India Movement:
The Quit India Movement began on August 8, 1942, during World War II. The India Congress Committee, under the auspices of Gandhi, demanded the withdrawal of the British majority and Gandhi delivered the “Do or Die” speech. British officials acted quickly and arrested almost all members of the Indian National Congress party.
The nation once again became embroiled in a heated debate over military action and refusal to help in the war effort. The group has suggested to the British that they may not be able to control India.
Finally, on August 15, 1947, India gained independence from the British government. However, independence came at a high cost. Hindus and Muslims who had once fought together against a united enemy now had to be separated. On June 3, 1947, British authorities proposed a law separating Britain from India and Pakistan. Thus, the hard work, self-sacrifice, and determination of the Indians led to the liberation of India from British rule.
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