Transport in India
Transportation is the movement of people, animals, and goods from one place to another. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline, and space.
- The trains were introduced to India in 1853 when a 34-km line from Bombay to Thane was constructed.
- The total length of the Indian Railways network is 64460 km. (March 2011).
The smart gauge route and track length of systems from 31 March 2007 are as follows: –
The network is divided into 16 sections. Separation is the basic functional components. The 16 sites are their headquarters which should be provided below.
- At a distance of approximately 42.3 lakh kilometers, India has one of the largest roads in the world. About 85% of commuters and 70% of road vehicles.
- Roads are classified as National Highways (NH), State Highways (SH), Major District Roads, and Rural Roads.
- The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), an independent branch under the Department of Higher Transport, came into operation in 1995. NHAI is responsible for the development, maintenance, and operation of the National Highways. of total road length, but carries approximately 40 percent of the road.
- State Highways were built and maintained by state governments.
Water transport can be divided into two main categories – rural roads and sea routes.
- The Inland Waterways Authority was established in 1986 for the construction, maintenance, and management of national roads in the country.
- Sea transport is the most important water transport because there are certain advantages to sea vessels. The sea offers a ship-shaped road, unlike a road or rail, that does not need to be repaired.
- The surface of the water is of two sizes and, although maritime vessels are constantly moving in orbit, vessels can move, within a limited number, in any direction.
- Air travel to India began in 1911 with the start of a ten-mile [10 km] flight between Allahabad and Nain.
- Pawan Hans is a helicopter service operating in hilly areas and is widely used by tourists in the northeastern regions.
- The Indian Ocean has 12 major ports and 200 non-major ports. The Great Ports are under this control while the Non-Large Bands fall under the jurisdiction of the respective State Governments.
- Currently, India has 12 major ports and 185 small or medium-sized ports.
- Twelve large ports accounted for about 71 percent of the country’s sea level by 2008-09.
- The capacity of Indian ports increased from 20 million tons of cargo handling in 1951 to more than 586 million tons in 2008-09.
- Mumbai has a natural harbor and is the largest port in the country.
India’s oil and gas industry imports 82% of its oil demand and aims to reduce that to 67% by 2022 by replacing local exploration, renewable energy, and traditional ethanol fuel (Jan 2018).
- The length of the crude oil pipeline is 20,000 km (12,427 mi).
- The length of the Petroleum Products pipeline is 15,000 km (9,300 mi).
Space Transportation System
- The Space Transportation System (STS), also known internally at NASA as an Integrated Program Plan (IPP), was a proposed reusable space system considered in 1969 to fund extended operations beyond the Apollo program.
- The aim of the program was twofold: to reduce the cost of flying in space by replacing the current method of delivering capsules with reusable rocket launchers; and supporting outstanding tracking systems including permanent space stations orbiting the Earth and the Moon, as well as Mars’ human landing activity.