The major classification of Indian soils
According to ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) soils are divided into 8 categories. they are:
- Alluvial soil [43%]
- Red soil [18.5%]
- Black / regur soil [15%]
- Arid/desert soil
- Laterite soil
- Peaty Soil
- Forest soil
- mountain soil
The most common soil in India (about 43%) covers an area of 143 km. It is widespread in the northern plains and river valleys. The new alluvium is called Khadarand the old alluvium is called Bhangar.
Color: Light gray in Ash Gray.
Fabric: It is sand to Silam loam or clay.
It is especially noticeable in low rainfall. Also known as the Omnibus group.
Color: Red due to Ferric oxide. The bottom layer is red or yellow.
Texture: It is sandy and loamy.
Black soil/regur soil:
Regur means cotton – the best soil for growing cotton. Most Deccans live in Dark soil. Cultivation is a feature of black soil as it grows wide cracks when dried.
Color: Deep dark to light-dark.
The word comes from the Latin word ‘Later’ which means Brick. It is soft when wet and firm when dried. In areas with high temperatures and high rainfall.
Color: Red color due to iron oxide.
Desert / dry soil:
Seen under Arid and Semi-Arid conditions.
Color: Red to Brown.
Peaty / wet soil:
Areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity Plant growth is very low.
Rainfall regions. Humus content is low so the soil is acidic.
In the mountainous regions of the country. Unripe soil with low and acidic humus.
|Types of Soils||States where found||Rich in||Lacks in||Crops grown|
|Alluvial||Mainly found in the plains of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, etc.||Potash and Lime||LimeNitrogen and Phosphorous||A large variety of rabi and Kharif crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jute, etc|
|Black (Regur soil)||Deccan plateau- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari.Lime||Lime, Iron, Magnesia and Alumina, Potash||Phosphorous, Nitrogen, and organic matter||Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice, etc.|
|Red||Eastern and southern part of the Deccan plateau, Orissa, Chattisgarh, and southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.||Iron and Potash||Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and humus.||Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, and pulses|
|Laterite||Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and Orissa hills.||Western Rajasthan, North Gujarat, and southern Punjab||Organic matter, Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Calcium||Cashewnuts, tea, coffee, rubber|
|Arid and Desert||Western Rajasthan, North Gujarat, and southern Punjab||Soluble salts, phosphate||Humus, Nitrogen||Only drought-resistant and salt-tolerant crops such as barley, rape, cotton, millets maize, and pulses|
|Saline and Alkaline||Western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast, Sunderban areas of West Bengal, Punjab, and Haryana||Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium||Nitrogen and Calcium||Unfit for agriculture|